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When Kitty Genovese was murdered, her family and the wider world was told that bystanders watched, but did nothing to intervene. Psychologists tried to explain this callous inaction with a popular theory — the “bystander effect.”

Dr. Laurie Santos was taught this theory — that most people won’t step in to help — but talking to Kitty’s brother and Lady Gaga’s mother she reveals that the “bystander effect” is wrong. People do like helping out, and we get a happiness boost from being kind. So how do we encourage more bystanders to intervene?

The Host

Dr. Laurie Santos

Dr. Laurie Santos is Professor of Psychology and Head of Silliman College at Yale University. Professor and podcast host Dr. Laurie Santos is an expert on human cognition and the…